[FFmpeg-devel] Fix for paletteuse to support transparency

Submitted by Bjorn Roche on Oct. 11, 2017, 7:55 p.m.

Details

Message ID 20171011195531.68012-1-bjorn@giphy.com
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Bjorn Roche Oct. 11, 2017, 7:55 p.m.
The pallettes generated by palettegen include one transparent color.
This patch enables paletteuse to identify the transparency in incoming
video and tag transparent pixels on outgoing video.

This requires tracking the transparency index in the palette,
establishing an alpha threshold below which a pixel is considered
transparent and above which the pixel is considered opaque, and
additional changes to track the alpha value throught the conversion
process. If the format of a color variable has changed in this patch,
an effort was also made to change the variable name for clarity.

This change is a partial fix for https://trac.ffmpeg.org/ticket/4443
However, animated GIFs are still output incorrectly due to a bug
in gif optimization which does not correctly handle transparency.
---
 libavfilter/vf_paletteuse.c | 210 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------------
 1 file changed, 132 insertions(+), 78 deletions(-)

Patch hide | download patch | download mbox

diff --git a/libavfilter/vf_paletteuse.c b/libavfilter/vf_paletteuse.c
index 79a0672891..837529998e 100644
--- a/libavfilter/vf_paletteuse.c
+++ b/libavfilter/vf_paletteuse.c
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@  enum diff_mode {
 };
 
 struct color_node {
-    uint8_t val[3];
+    uint8_t val[4];
     uint8_t palette_id;
     int split;
     int left_id, right_id;
@@ -86,6 +86,8 @@  typedef struct PaletteUseContext {
     struct cache_node cache[CACHE_SIZE];    /* lookup cache */
     struct color_node map[AVPALETTE_COUNT]; /* 3D-Tree (KD-Tree with K=3) for reverse colormap */
     uint32_t palette[AVPALETTE_COUNT];
+    int transparency_index; /* index in the palette of transparency. -1 if there isn't a transparency. */
+    int trans_thresh;
     int palette_loaded;
     int dither;
     int new;
@@ -116,6 +118,7 @@  static const AVOption paletteuse_options[] = {
     { "bayer_scale", "set scale for bayer dithering", OFFSET(bayer_scale), AV_OPT_TYPE_INT, {.i64=2}, 0, 5, FLAGS },
     { "diff_mode",   "set frame difference mode",     OFFSET(diff_mode),   AV_OPT_TYPE_INT, {.i64=DIFF_MODE_NONE}, 0, NB_DIFF_MODE-1, FLAGS, "diff_mode" },
         { "rectangle", "process smallest different rectangle", 0, AV_OPT_TYPE_CONST, {.i64=DIFF_MODE_RECTANGLE}, INT_MIN, INT_MAX, FLAGS, "diff_mode" },
+    { "trans_threshold", "set the threshold for alpha values avoce which they are considered completely opaque", OFFSET(trans_thresh), AV_OPT_TYPE_INT, {.i64=128}, 0, 255, },
 
     /* following are the debug options, not part of the official API */
     { "debug_kdtree", "save Graphviz graph of the kdtree in specified file", OFFSET(dot_filename), AV_OPT_TYPE_STRING, {.str=NULL}, CHAR_MIN, CHAR_MAX, FLAGS },
@@ -157,34 +160,44 @@  static int query_formats(AVFilterContext *ctx)
 
 static av_always_inline int dither_color(uint32_t px, int er, int eg, int eb, int scale, int shift)
 {
-    return av_clip_uint8((px >> 16 & 0xff) + ((er * scale) / (1<<shift))) << 16
+    return av_clip_uint8( px >> 24                                      ) << 24
+         | av_clip_uint8((px >> 16 & 0xff) + ((er * scale) / (1<<shift))) << 16
          | av_clip_uint8((px >>  8 & 0xff) + ((eg * scale) / (1<<shift))) <<  8
          | av_clip_uint8((px       & 0xff) + ((eb * scale) / (1<<shift)));
 }
 
-static av_always_inline int diff(const uint8_t *c1, const uint8_t *c2)
+static av_always_inline int diff(const uint8_t *c1, const uint8_t *c2, const int trans_thresh)
 {
     // XXX: try L*a*b with CIE76 (dL*dL + da*da + db*db)
-    const int dr = c1[0] - c2[0];
-    const int dg = c1[1] - c2[1];
-    const int db = c1[2] - c2[2];
-    return dr*dr + dg*dg + db*db;
+    const static int max_diff = 195075; //equal to 255*255 + 255*255 + 255*255
+    const int dr = c1[1] - c2[1];
+    const int dg = c1[2] - c2[2];
+    const int db = c1[3] - c2[3];
+
+    if (c1[0] < trans_thresh && c2[0] < trans_thresh) {
+        return 0;
+    } else if (c1[0] >= trans_thresh && c2[0] >= trans_thresh) {
+        return dr*dr + dg*dg + db*db;
+    } else {
+        return max_diff;
+    }
 }
 
-static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_bruteforce(const uint32_t *palette, const uint8_t *rgb)
+static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_bruteforce(const uint32_t *palette, const uint8_t *argb, const int trans_thresh)
 {
     int i, pal_id = -1, min_dist = INT_MAX;
 
     for (i = 0; i < AVPALETTE_COUNT; i++) {
         const uint32_t c = palette[i];
 
-        if ((c & 0xff000000) == 0xff000000) { // ignore transparent entry
-            const uint8_t palrgb[] = {
+        if ( c >> 24 >= trans_thresh ) { // ignore transparent entry
+            const uint8_t palargb[] = {
+                palette[i]>>24 & 0xff,
                 palette[i]>>16 & 0xff,
                 palette[i]>> 8 & 0xff,
                 palette[i]     & 0xff,
             };
-            const int d = diff(palrgb, rgb);
+            const int d = diff(palargb, argb, trans_thresh);
             if (d < min_dist) {
                 pal_id = i;
                 min_dist = d;
@@ -203,13 +216,14 @@  struct nearest_color {
 static void colormap_nearest_node(const struct color_node *map,
                                   const int node_pos,
                                   const uint8_t *target,
+                                  const int trans_thresh,
                                   struct nearest_color *nearest)
 {
     const struct color_node *kd = map + node_pos;
     const int s = kd->split;
     int dx, nearer_kd_id, further_kd_id;
     const uint8_t *current = kd->val;
-    const int current_to_target = diff(target, current);
+    const int current_to_target = diff(target, current, trans_thresh);
 
     if (current_to_target < nearest->dist_sqd) {
         nearest->node_pos = node_pos;
@@ -223,17 +237,17 @@  static void colormap_nearest_node(const struct color_node *map,
         else         nearer_kd_id = kd->right_id, further_kd_id = kd->left_id;
 
         if (nearer_kd_id != -1)
-            colormap_nearest_node(map, nearer_kd_id, target, nearest);
+            colormap_nearest_node(map, nearer_kd_id, target, trans_thresh, nearest);
 
         if (further_kd_id != -1 && dx*dx < nearest->dist_sqd)
-            colormap_nearest_node(map, further_kd_id, target, nearest);
+            colormap_nearest_node(map, further_kd_id, target, trans_thresh, nearest);
     }
 }
 
-static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_recursive(const struct color_node *node, const uint8_t *rgb)
+static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_recursive(const struct color_node *node, const uint8_t *rgb, const int trans_thresh)
 {
     struct nearest_color res = {.dist_sqd = INT_MAX, .node_pos = -1};
-    colormap_nearest_node(node, 0, rgb, &res);
+    colormap_nearest_node(node, 0, rgb, trans_thresh, &res);
     return node[res.node_pos].palette_id;
 }
 
@@ -242,7 +256,7 @@  struct stack_node {
     int dx2;
 };
 
-static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_iterative(const struct color_node *root, const uint8_t *target)
+static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_iterative(const struct color_node *root, const uint8_t *target, const int trans_thresh)
 {
     int pos = 0, best_node_id = -1, best_dist = INT_MAX, cur_color_id = 0;
     struct stack_node nodes[16];
@@ -252,7 +266,7 @@  static av_always_inline uint8_t colormap_nearest_iterative(const struct color_no
 
         const struct color_node *kd = &root[cur_color_id];
         const uint8_t *current = kd->val;
-        const int current_to_target = diff(target, current);
+        const int current_to_target = diff(target, current, trans_thresh);
 
         /* Compare current color node to the target and update our best node if
          * it's actually better. */
@@ -314,25 +328,27 @@  end:
     return root[best_node_id].palette_id;
 }
 
-#define COLORMAP_NEAREST(search, palette, root, target)                                    \
-    search == COLOR_SEARCH_NNS_ITERATIVE ? colormap_nearest_iterative(root, target) :      \
-    search == COLOR_SEARCH_NNS_RECURSIVE ? colormap_nearest_recursive(root, target) :      \
-                                           colormap_nearest_bruteforce(palette, target)
+#define COLORMAP_NEAREST(search, palette, root, target, trans_thresh)                                    \
+    search == COLOR_SEARCH_NNS_ITERATIVE ? colormap_nearest_iterative(root, target, trans_thresh) :      \
+    search == COLOR_SEARCH_NNS_RECURSIVE ? colormap_nearest_recursive(root, target, trans_thresh) :      \
+                                           colormap_nearest_bruteforce(palette, target, trans_thresh)
 
 /**
  * Check if the requested color is in the cache already. If not, find it in the
  * color tree and cache it.
- * Note: r, g, and b are the component of c but are passed as well to avoid
+ * Note: a, r, g, and b are the components of argb, but are passed as well to avoid
  * recomputing them (they are generally computed by the caller for other uses).
  */
-static av_always_inline int color_get(struct cache_node *cache, uint32_t color,
-                                      uint8_t r, uint8_t g, uint8_t b,
+static av_always_inline int color_get(struct cache_node *cache, uint32_t argb,
+                                      uint8_t a, uint8_t r, uint8_t g, uint8_t b,
+                                      int transparency_index,
+                                      int trans_thresh,
                                       const struct color_node *map,
                                       const uint32_t *palette,
                                       const enum color_search_method search_method)
 {
     int i;
-    const uint8_t rgb[] = {r, g, b};
+    const uint8_t argb_elts[] = {a, r, g, b};
     const uint8_t rhash = r & ((1<<NBITS)-1);
     const uint8_t ghash = g & ((1<<NBITS)-1);
     const uint8_t bhash = b & ((1<<NBITS)-1);
@@ -340,9 +356,14 @@  static av_always_inline int color_get(struct cache_node *cache, uint32_t color,
     struct cache_node *node = &cache[hash];
     struct cached_color *e;
 
+    // first, check for transparency
+    if (a < trans_thresh && transparency_index >= 0) {
+        return transparency_index;
+    }
+
     for (i = 0; i < node->nb_entries; i++) {
         e = &node->entries[i];
-        if (e->color == color)
+        if (e->color == argb)
             return e->pal_entry;
     }
 
@@ -350,21 +371,25 @@  static av_always_inline int color_get(struct cache_node *cache, uint32_t color,
                          sizeof(*node->entries), NULL);
     if (!e)
         return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
-    e->color = color;
-    e->pal_entry = COLORMAP_NEAREST(search_method, palette, map, rgb);
+    e->color = argb;
+    e->pal_entry = COLORMAP_NEAREST(search_method, palette, map, argb_elts, trans_thresh);
+
     return e->pal_entry;
 }
 
 static av_always_inline int get_dst_color_err(struct cache_node *cache,
-                                              uint32_t c, const struct color_node *map,
+                                              uint32_t argb, const struct color_node *map,
                                               const uint32_t *palette,
+                                              int transparency_index,
+                                              int trans_thresh,
                                               int *er, int *eg, int *eb,
                                               const enum color_search_method search_method)
 {
-    const uint8_t r = c >> 16 & 0xff;
-    const uint8_t g = c >>  8 & 0xff;
-    const uint8_t b = c       & 0xff;
-    const int dstx = color_get(cache, c, r, g, b, map, palette, search_method);
+    const uint8_t a = argb >> 24 & 0xff;
+    const uint8_t r = argb >> 16 & 0xff;
+    const uint8_t g = argb >>  8 & 0xff;
+    const uint8_t b = argb       & 0xff;
+    const int dstx = color_get(cache, argb, a, r, g, b, transparency_index, trans_thresh, map, palette, search_method);
     const uint32_t dstc = palette[dstx];
     *er = r - (dstc >> 16 & 0xff);
     *eg = g - (dstc >>  8 & 0xff);
@@ -385,6 +410,8 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
     const int dst_linesize = out->linesize[0];
     uint32_t *src = ((uint32_t *)in ->data[0]) + y_start*src_linesize;
     uint8_t  *dst =              out->data[0]  + y_start*dst_linesize;
+    int transparency_index = s->transparency_index;
+    int trans_thresh = s->trans_thresh;
 
     w += x_start;
     h += y_start;
@@ -395,14 +422,14 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
 
             if (dither == DITHERING_BAYER) {
                 const int d = s->ordered_dither[(y & 7)<<3 | (x & 7)];
+                const uint8_t a8 = src[x] >> 24 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t r8 = src[x] >> 16 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t g8 = src[x] >>  8 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t b8 = src[x]       & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t r = av_clip_uint8(r8 + d);
                 const uint8_t g = av_clip_uint8(g8 + d);
                 const uint8_t b = av_clip_uint8(b8 + d);
-                const uint32_t c = r<<16 | g<<8 | b;
-                const int color = color_get(cache, c, r, g, b, map, palette, search_method);
+                const int color = color_get(cache, src[x], a8, r, g, b, transparency_index, trans_thresh, map, palette, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -410,7 +437,7 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
 
             } else if (dither == DITHERING_HECKBERT) {
                 const int right = x < w - 1, down = y < h - 1;
-                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
+                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, transparency_index, trans_thresh, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -422,7 +449,7 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
 
             } else if (dither == DITHERING_FLOYD_STEINBERG) {
                 const int right = x < w - 1, down = y < h - 1, left = x > x_start;
-                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
+                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, transparency_index, trans_thresh, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -436,7 +463,7 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
             } else if (dither == DITHERING_SIERRA2) {
                 const int right  = x < w - 1, down  = y < h - 1, left  = x > x_start;
                 const int right2 = x < w - 2,                    left2 = x > x_start + 1;
-                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
+                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, transparency_index, trans_thresh, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -455,7 +482,7 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
 
             } else if (dither == DITHERING_SIERRA2_4A) {
                 const int right = x < w - 1, down = y < h - 1, left = x > x_start;
-                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
+                const int color = get_dst_color_err(cache, src[x], map, palette, transparency_index, trans_thresh, &er, &eg, &eb, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -466,10 +493,11 @@  static av_always_inline int set_frame(PaletteUseContext *s, AVFrame *out, AVFram
                 if (         down) src[src_linesize + x    ] = dither_color(src[src_linesize + x    ], er, eg, eb, 1, 2);
 
             } else {
+                const uint8_t a = src[x] >> 24 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t r = src[x] >> 16 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t g = src[x] >>  8 & 0xff;
                 const uint8_t b = src[x]       & 0xff;
-                const int color = color_get(cache, src[x] & 0xffffff, r, g, b, map, palette, search_method);
+                const int color = color_get(cache, src[x], a, r, g, b, transparency_index, trans_thresh, map, palette, search_method);
 
                 if (color < 0)
                     return color;
@@ -489,19 +517,19 @@  static void disp_node(AVBPrint *buf,
                       int depth)
 {
     const struct color_node *node = &map[node_id];
-    const uint32_t fontcolor = node->val[0] > 0x50 &&
-                               node->val[1] > 0x50 &&
-                               node->val[2] > 0x50 ? 0 : 0xffffff;
+    const uint32_t fontcolor = node->val[1] > 0x50 &&
+                               node->val[2] > 0x50 &&
+                               node->val[3] > 0x50 ? 0 : 0xffffff;
     av_bprintf(buf, "%*cnode%d ["
                "label=\"%c%02X%c%02X%c%02X%c\" "
                "fillcolor=\"#%02x%02x%02x\" "
                "fontcolor=\"#%06"PRIX32"\"]\n",
                depth*INDENT, ' ', node->palette_id,
-               "[  "[node->split], node->val[0],
-               "][ "[node->split], node->val[1],
-               " ]["[node->split], node->val[2],
+               "[  "[node->split], node->val[1],
+               "][ "[node->split], node->val[2],
+               " ]["[node->split], node->val[3],
                "  ]"[node->split],
-               node->val[0], node->val[1], node->val[2],
+               node->val[1], node->val[2], node->val[3],
                fontcolor);
     if (parent_id != -1)
         av_bprintf(buf, "%*cnode%d -> node%d\n", depth*INDENT, ' ',
@@ -536,7 +564,7 @@  static int disp_tree(const struct color_node *node, const char *fname)
     return 0;
 }
 
-static int debug_accuracy(const struct color_node *node, const uint32_t *palette,
+static int debug_accuracy(const struct color_node *node, const uint32_t *palette, const int trans_thresh,
                           const enum color_search_method search_method)
 {
     int r, g, b, ret = 0;
@@ -545,15 +573,15 @@  static int debug_accuracy(const struct color_node *node, const uint32_t *palette
         for (g = 0; g < 256; g++) {
             for (b = 0; b < 256; b++) {
                 const uint8_t rgb[] = {r, g, b};
-                const int r1 = COLORMAP_NEAREST(search_method, palette, node, rgb);
-                const int r2 = colormap_nearest_bruteforce(palette, rgb);
+                const int r1 = COLORMAP_NEAREST(search_method, palette, node, rgb, trans_thresh);
+                const int r2 = colormap_nearest_bruteforce(palette, rgb, trans_thresh);
                 if (r1 != r2) {
                     const uint32_t c1 = palette[r1];
                     const uint32_t c2 = palette[r2];
                     const uint8_t palrgb1[] = { c1>>16 & 0xff, c1>> 8 & 0xff, c1 & 0xff };
                     const uint8_t palrgb2[] = { c2>>16 & 0xff, c2>> 8 & 0xff, c2 & 0xff };
-                    const int d1 = diff(palrgb1, rgb);
-                    const int d2 = diff(palrgb2, rgb);
+                    const int d1 = diff(palrgb1, rgb, trans_thresh);
+                    const int d2 = diff(palrgb2, rgb, trans_thresh);
                     if (d1 != d2) {
                         av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_ERROR,
                                "/!\\ %02X%02X%02X: %d ! %d (%06"PRIX32" ! %06"PRIX32") / dist: %d ! %d\n",
@@ -584,17 +612,19 @@  static int cmp_##name(const void *pa, const void *pb)   \
 {                                                       \
     const struct color *a = pa;                         \
     const struct color *b = pb;                         \
-    return   (a->value >> (8 * (2 - (pos))) & 0xff)     \
-           - (b->value >> (8 * (2 - (pos))) & 0xff);    \
+    return   (a->value >> (8 * (3 - (pos))) & 0xff)     \
+           - (b->value >> (8 * (3 - (pos))) & 0xff);    \
 }
 
-DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(r, 0)
-DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(g, 1)
-DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(b, 2)
+DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(a, 0)
+DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(r, 1)
+DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(g, 2)
+DECLARE_CMP_FUNC(b, 3)
 
-static const cmp_func cmp_funcs[] = {cmp_r, cmp_g, cmp_b};
+static const cmp_func cmp_funcs[] = {cmp_a, cmp_r, cmp_g, cmp_b};
 
 static int get_next_color(const uint8_t *color_used, const uint32_t *palette,
+                          const int trans_thresh,
                           int *component, const struct color_rect *box)
 {
     int wr, wg, wb;
@@ -609,11 +639,16 @@  static int get_next_color(const uint8_t *color_used, const uint32_t *palette,
 
     for (i = 0; i < AVPALETTE_COUNT; i++) {
         const uint32_t c = palette[i];
+        const uint8_t a = c >> 24 & 0xff;
         const uint8_t r = c >> 16 & 0xff;
         const uint8_t g = c >>  8 & 0xff;
         const uint8_t b = c       & 0xff;
 
-        if (color_used[i] ||
+        if (a < trans_thresh) {
+            continue;
+        }
+
+        if (color_used[i] || (a != 0xff) ||
             r < box->min[0] || g < box->min[1] || b < box->min[2] ||
             r > box->max[0] || g > box->max[1] || b > box->max[2])
             continue;
@@ -639,9 +674,9 @@  static int get_next_color(const uint8_t *color_used, const uint32_t *palette,
     wr = ranges.max[0] - ranges.min[0];
     wg = ranges.max[1] - ranges.min[1];
     wb = ranges.max[2] - ranges.min[2];
-    if (wr >= wg && wr >= wb) longest = 0;
-    if (wg >= wr && wg >= wb) longest = 1;
-    if (wb >= wr && wb >= wg) longest = 2;
+    if (wr >= wg && wr >= wb) longest = 1;
+    if (wg >= wr && wg >= wb) longest = 2;
+    if (wb >= wr && wb >= wg) longest = 3;
     cmpf = cmp_funcs[longest];
     *component = longest;
 
@@ -655,6 +690,7 @@  static int colormap_insert(struct color_node *map,
                            uint8_t *color_used,
                            int *nb_used,
                            const uint32_t *palette,
+                           const int trans_thresh,
                            const struct color_rect *box)
 {
     uint32_t c;
@@ -662,7 +698,7 @@  static int colormap_insert(struct color_node *map,
     int node_left_id = -1, node_right_id = -1;
     struct color_node *node;
     struct color_rect box1, box2;
-    const int pal_id = get_next_color(color_used, palette, &component, box);
+    const int pal_id = get_next_color(color_used, palette, trans_thresh, &component, box);
 
     if (pal_id < 0)
         return -1;
@@ -673,21 +709,22 @@  static int colormap_insert(struct color_node *map,
     node = &map[cur_id];
     node->split = component;
     node->palette_id = pal_id;
-    node->val[0] = c>>16 & 0xff;
-    node->val[1] = c>> 8 & 0xff;
-    node->val[2] = c     & 0xff;
+    node->val[0] = c>>24 & 0xff;
+    node->val[1] = c>>16 & 0xff;
+    node->val[2] = c>> 8 & 0xff;
+    node->val[3] = c     & 0xff;
 
     color_used[pal_id] = 1;
 
     /* get the two boxes this node creates */
     box1 = box2 = *box;
-    box1.max[component] = node->val[component];
-    box2.min[component] = node->val[component] + 1;
+    box1.max[component-1] = node->val[component];
+    box2.min[component-1] = node->val[component] + 1;
 
-    node_left_id = colormap_insert(map, color_used, nb_used, palette, &box1);
+    node_left_id = colormap_insert(map, color_used, nb_used, palette, trans_thresh, &box1);
 
-    if (box2.min[component] <= box2.max[component])
-        node_right_id = colormap_insert(map, color_used, nb_used, palette, &box2);
+    if (box2.min[component-1] <= box2.max[component-1])
+        node_right_id = colormap_insert(map, color_used, nb_used, palette, trans_thresh, &box2);
 
     node->left_id  = node_left_id;
     node->right_id = node_right_id;
@@ -711,6 +748,16 @@  static void load_colormap(PaletteUseContext *s)
 
     /* disable transparent colors and dups */
     qsort(s->palette, AVPALETTE_COUNT, sizeof(*s->palette), cmp_pal_entry);
+    // update transparency index:
+    if (s->transparency_index >= 0) {
+        for (i = 0; i < AVPALETTE_COUNT; i++) {
+            if ((s->palette[i]>>24 & 0xff) == 0) {
+                s->transparency_index = i; // we are assuming at most one transparent color in palette
+                break;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
     for (i = 0; i < AVPALETTE_COUNT; i++) {
         const uint32_t c = s->palette[i];
         if (i != 0 && c == last_color) {
@@ -718,7 +765,7 @@  static void load_colormap(PaletteUseContext *s)
             continue;
         }
         last_color = c;
-        if ((c & 0xff000000) != 0xff000000) {
+        if ( c >> 24 < s->trans_thresh ) {
             color_used[i] = 1; // ignore transparent color(s)
             continue;
         }
@@ -727,13 +774,13 @@  static void load_colormap(PaletteUseContext *s)
     box.min[0] = box.min[1] = box.min[2] = 0x00;
     box.max[0] = box.max[1] = box.max[2] = 0xff;
 
-    colormap_insert(s->map, color_used, &nb_used, s->palette, &box);
+    colormap_insert(s->map, color_used, &nb_used, s->palette, s->trans_thresh, &box);
 
     if (s->dot_filename)
         disp_tree(s->map, s->dot_filename);
 
     if (s->debug_accuracy) {
-        if (!debug_accuracy(s->map, s->palette, s->color_search_method))
+        if (!debug_accuracy(s->map, s->palette, s->trans_thresh, s->color_search_method))
             av_log(NULL, AV_LOG_INFO, "Accuracy check passed\n");
     }
 }
@@ -756,7 +803,7 @@  static void debug_mean_error(PaletteUseContext *s, const AVFrame *in1,
             const uint32_t c2 = palette[src2[x]];
             const uint8_t rgb1[] = {c1 >> 16 & 0xff, c1 >> 8 & 0xff, c1 & 0xff};
             const uint8_t rgb2[] = {c2 >> 16 & 0xff, c2 >> 8 & 0xff, c2 & 0xff};
-            mean_err += diff(rgb1, rgb2);
+            mean_err += diff(rgb1, rgb2, s->trans_thresh);
         }
         src1 += src1_linesize;
         src2 += src2_linesize;
@@ -941,6 +988,8 @@  static void load_palette(PaletteUseContext *s, const AVFrame *palette_frame)
     const uint32_t *p = (const uint32_t *)palette_frame->data[0];
     const int p_linesize = palette_frame->linesize[0] >> 2;
 
+    s->transparency_index = -1;
+
     if (s->new) {
         memset(s->palette, 0, sizeof(s->palette));
         memset(s->map, 0, sizeof(s->map));
@@ -951,8 +1000,13 @@  static void load_palette(PaletteUseContext *s, const AVFrame *palette_frame)
 
     i = 0;
     for (y = 0; y < palette_frame->height; y++) {
-        for (x = 0; x < palette_frame->width; x++)
-            s->palette[i++] = p[x];
+        for (x = 0; x < palette_frame->width; x++) {
+            s->palette[i] = p[x];
+            if (p[x]>>24 < s->trans_thresh) {
+                s->transparency_index = i; // we are assuming at most one transparent color in palette
+            }
+            ++i;
+        }
         p += p_linesize;
     }